11. The Nine Situations


On the day that you take up your command, block the frontier passes, destroy the official tallies,

These were tablets of bamboo or wood, one half of which was issued as a permit or passport by the official in charge of a gate. Cf. the "border-warden" of LUN YU III. 24, who may have had similar duties. When this half was returned to him, within a fixed period, he was authorized to open the gate and let the traveler through.

and stop the passage of all emissaries.

Either to or from the enemy's country.

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